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  Most popular articles (Since June 21, 2013)

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Knowledge on management of anemia during pregnancy: A descriptive study
Ashly Baby, Jeevan Venugopal, Renita D'silva, Shantia Chacko, PV Vineesha, T Vinaya Kumary
July-December 2014, 2(2):140-144
Background of the study: The growing fetus depends entirely on its mother's healthy body for all needs. However, sometimes it can be a time of fear of suffering and death, in case women begin pregnancy with low or absent stores of iron because of previous pregnancy, poor iron intake, substance abuse; increased fetal demands of iron leads to iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition in the world and is the eighth leading cause of death in pregnant women in developing countries leading to the low birth weight, which is in turn an important risk factor for infant mortality. Objectives: To determine the knowledge of antenatal mothers regarding management of anemia during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Non-experimental descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge of antenatal mothers from Yenepoya Medical College Hospital. A sample size consists of 50 antenatal mothers were selected through non-probability purposive sampling. The data was collected by using pretested structured knowledge questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions. Results: The majority of the antenatal mothers (54%) had satisfactory knowledge, 38% had poor knowledge, and 8% had good knowledge regarding anemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: The overall knowledge in the study population was 29.9%. Hence, the researcher emphasizes the need for more research to improve the knowledge of antenatal mothers on anemia during pregnancy.
  7,416 581 1
Safe surgical practices and asepsis
Ravindra M Shenoy, Archana Shenoy
January-June 2013, 1(1):38-45
Surgical care has become highly specialized because of scientific advances. It is now possible to handle many health problems successfully with the help of newer and innovative methods. However, to deliver care safely to patients as well as prevent harm to the personnel delivering the same, safe practices have to be followed. In developing nations especially, as modern surgical care percolates the masses, ignoring safe surgical practice may cause more harm than good and the surgeon / procedure may even earn disrepute. This article reviews different aspects of current surgical practice with respect to safe surgical care and asepsis.
  6,611 334 -
The level of stress and coping mechanism adopted by I Year B.Sc. nursing students
C Viji Prasad, Amrutha Suresh, Dina K Thomas, MK Pritty, Sumaida Beebi, Vijapura Multazim
January-June 2013, 1(1):19-23
Background: Stress is a fact of life that every human deals with on a daily basis. In the transitional nature of student life in professional courses like nursing, initial period of course is stressful and it adversely affects the emotional, physical, social, and academic functions. Even though the perception and response to stress and way of coping differs individually, it may produce questionable behavioral patterns in student nurses during the course of their study like feeling of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness, and worrying. Thus, the student nurse faces a lot of challenges and problems at the time of I Year. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the level of stress and coping mechanisms adopted by I Year B.Sc. nursing students. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 I Year B.Sc. nursing students were selected by using non-probability convenient sampling technique. The tools used for data collection were perceived stress scale, structured coping scale, and socio- demographic proforma. Results: The studies revealed that majority of students (95.1%) were in the age group of 17-19 years. The results showed that only one student (1.7%) has severe stress, 46.7% has moderate stress, and remaining 51.6% has mild stress, and majority of the students (100) had average coping. There was no significant correlation (-1.167) between stress and coping mechanism of I Year B.Sc. nursing students. Conclusion: Majority of students had mild stress and average coping. The nurse administrator should plan and organize educational program for nursing students, in order to prepare them to cope up with any stressful situations. Hence, the researcher emphasizes the need for more research to improve the knowledge and by applying the research finding for future.
  6,141 706 -
Nasoalveolar molding treatment in presurgical infant orthopedics in cleft lip and cleft palate patients
N. Retnakumari, S. Divya, S. Meenakumari, P. S. Ajith
January-June 2014, 2(1):36-47
The nasoalveolar molding (NAM) technique is a new approach to presurgical infant orthopedics that reduces the severity of the initial cleft alveolar and nasal deformity. This technique facilitates the primary surgical repair of the nose and lip to heal under minimal tension, thereby reducing scar formation and improving the esthetic result. NAM technique is the nonsurgical, passive method of bringing the gum and lip together by redirecting the forces of natural growth. NAM has proved to be an effective adjunctive therapy for reducing hard and soft tissue cleft deformity before surgery. This paper reviews the basic principles of NAM therapy, various types of appliances used in this therapy, protocol followed, and a critical evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. Universally authors have agreed the positive outcome of NAM for better esthetics after cleft lip and palate (CLP) repair, but the long-term effects of this therapy are yet to be substantiated. Despite a relative paucity of high-level evidence, NAM appears to be a promising technique that deserves further research.
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Normative data of Modified Functional Reach Test in younger and middle-aged North Eastern Indian population
Priyanka Singh, Nangteidor Hujon
July-December 2013, 1(2):109-114
Background and Purpose: The modified functional reach test (MFRT) is the objective measure for dynamic sitting balance. It quantifies sitting balance in two directions: Forward and lateral reach. So, the purpose of the study was to 1) provide clinical reference value and 2) examine the factors that may influence the anthropometrics measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy subjects participated in this descriptive study. All subjects were divided in two groups: Younger (20-39 yr) and middle-aged (40-59 yr). After anthropometric measurement, all subjects performed test by reaching forward and lateral with a closed fist while sitting. MFRT was taken with 3 trials with 15 sec break in between. Results: The mean score of the forward and lateral reach of right and left in group 1 was higher compared to group 2. The normative value of forward reach in group 1 was 34.05 ± 9.03 cm; for lateral reach right and left, it was 18.2 ± 5.26 cm and 17.32 ± 5.21 cm, respectively. For group 2, normative values for forward reach, lateral right and left were 25.18 ± 5.71 cm, 14.02 ± 3.98 cm and 13.53 ± 4.25 cm, respectively. There was no significant correlation of forward and lateral reach measures with the anthropometric characteristics in both the groups, except trunk length and BMI in group 1, which was significantly correlated ( P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study provides clinical reference value for younger and middle age group subjects while anthropometrics do not affect performance except trunk length and BMI in younger age group.
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Is maternal age risk factor for low birth weight?
Radha Y Aras
January-June 2013, 1(1):33-37
Low birth weight (LBW) is a significant public health concern at global level. LBW is the outcome of interplay of multiple maternal factors. Maternal age is an important variable leading to LBW and preterm births. The literature review was done with extensive search from Medline, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Combined Health Information Database for publications that identified the studies related to maternal age and birth weight. With exception of few studies which concluded that age did not significantly affect birth weight of newborns, majority of research indicated that a very young maternal age is causally implicated with an increased risk of having LBW and preterm births. Little research has been conducted on births to older mothers, even though such births are becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Advancing maternal age is associated with a decreased potential for fetal growth, possibly reflecting biological aging of maternal tissues and systems or the cumulative effects of disease. Results of multivariate analysis showed a U-shaped relationship between maternal age and LBW among whites, with the youngest (younger than 15) and the oldest (aged 40 and older) mothers being at high risk than 25-29 years old; older teenagers were not at any significantly higher risk. For the black, the risk of LBW rose steeply with maternal age (mothers aged 15-19 years are significantly lower risk than those of 25-29 years for LBW infants).
  4,915 637 1
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An accurate diagnostic tool in the precise localization of penile fracture
Mujeeb M Rahiman, T Manasa, Devadasa Acharya Koteshwara
January-June 2013, 1(1):54-56
An 18-year-old male presented with history and clinical findings suggestive of penile fracture. An MRI demonstrated disruption of the tunica albuginea and corpora cavernosa on the left dorso-lateral aspect, mid-shaft of penis with adjacent hematoma, and subcutaneous edema. At surgery, imaging findings were found to be accurate, and the penis was successfully repaired with minimal postoperative morbidity.
  4,724 199 1
Perceived stress among medical students: To identify its sources and coping strategies
Shubhada Gade, Suresh Chari, Madhur Gupta
January-June 2014, 2(1):80-86
Context: Stress in medical education is common and process-oriented. It often exerts a negative effect on their academic performance, physical health, and psychological well being. Aims: This study aims at identification of such susceptible students in the early stage i.e. first year of medical education, and to provide them essential support in the form of an intervention program to lessen the negative consequences of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the First MBBS students of NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Nagpur, India. A 41-item questionnaire was designed to assess the sources of stress and their severity. Likert's 5-point scale was used to quantify the extent of severity on each item. Coping strategies adopted by students were assessed by using a 22-item stress inventory, and a questionnaire based on 19 institutional stress-reducing factors was used to identify its role. Results: The survey resulted into an overall response rate of 87% (131 out of 150 students). Median stress level based on 41 items was evaluated for each student. About 29% (40 students) had median stress level greater than 3. Female students were more stressed (17.19%) than male students (14.93%). The study revealed that students generally adopt active coping strategies rather than avoidant strategies like alcohol and drug abuse. The study indicated that emotional support system is a major stress-relieving factor for students. Conclusion: Prevalence of perceived stress is high among medical students. It seems that academic-related problems are greater perceived stressors. Review of academics, exam schedules and patterns, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, intervention programs and counseling could certainly help a lot to reduce stress in medical students.
  4,245 443 2
A rare case of persistent metopic suture in an elderly individual: Incidental autopsy finding with clinical implications
S Vikram, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Aswini R. Dutt
January-June 2014, 2(1):61-63
Metopic suture is a dense fibrous joint extending from the nasion to the bregma. Normally, closure of this suture takes place between 1-8 years of age. Failure of this closure beyond 8 years leads to persistent metopic suture. A rare case of persistent metopic suture in a 60-year-old male is documented, who committed suicide by alleged consumption of organophosphorous compound at District Govt. Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Metopic suture may mimic skull fracture and may mislead an inexperienced forensic expert. Neurosurgeon should also be aware of this anatomical variation while performing frontal craniotomy, as the persistent metopic suture may mimic vertical fracture of the skull. Hence, in this case report, the clinical and medico-legal implications of the persistent metopic sutures have been discussed.
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Radiologic features of intraosseous hemangioma: A diagnostic challenge
Preethi Balan, Subhas Babu Gogineni, Shishir Ram Shetty, Fazil K. Areekat
January-June 2014, 2(1):67-70
Intraosseous vascular lesions are rare conditions, comprising only 0.5% to 1% of all intraosseous tumors. They present with variable and atypical radiographic appearances. Because of this variation, no pathognomonic sign exists that can be used to make a definite clinical diagnosis of these tumors. But, early diagnosis of central hemangioma is essential for preventing uncontrollable hemorrhage and even death during biopsy or surgery. The purpose of this article is to stress on the importance of radiology in the timely diagnosis of such lesions, which can prevent the disaster not only to the patient but also to oral surgeon in legal and professional aspects.
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Moving toward competency-based education: Challenges and the way forward
Thomas V Chacko
July-December 2014, 2(2):247-253
This article aims at giving a broad overview on competency-based education to those who are currently in the predominantly knowledge focused discipline-based curriculum and so are uninitiated to the competency-based educational paradigm. This is done by taking them through the curricular trends in medical education that have happened elsewhere in the world and providing them with a gist of what is competency-based medical education, how it is different from the earlier paradigms of instruction, the advantages that this paradigm of mastery learning presents to help the learner acquire competencies needed for doing the professional tasks and duties that are in alignment with health needs of the country, the framework and the broad steps involved in its implementation, the challenges that its implementation presents particularly with regard to benchmarking for assessment as revealed by the experiences in the Western world that resulted in a three-decade lag between intention to change and actual change and the way forward to overcome these challenges particularly through faculty capacity-building using longitudinal faculty development programs or series of faculty retreats to ensure that it can be successfully implemented and sustained to serve the purpose of producing job-ready professionals.
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Anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves in Swiss albino mice
Anu Elizabeth Joy, Shankar Bhat Kunhikatta, Shyamjith Manikkoth
January-June 2013, 1(1):6-9
Objectives : To investigate the anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves on maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods : The ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves (200 mg/kg, i.p) was studied for its anti-convulsant effect on MES and PTZ-induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. In MES seizures, suppression of tonic hind limb extension was noted. In PTZ seizures, abolition of the convulsions was noted. Results : The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Moringa concanensis (200 mg/kg, i.p) significantly (P < 0.001) abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES. The same dose also significantly (P < 0.001) protected the animals from PTZ-induced tonic convulsions. Conclusion : The data suggests that the ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves may produce its anti-convulsant effects via multiple mechanisms since it abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES as well as abolished seizures produced by PTZ.
  3,800 314 -
Magnets in dentistry
Vidya S Bhat, K Kamalakanth Shenoy, Priyanka Premkumar
January-June 2013, 1(1):73-79
Magnets have generated great interest within dentistry. They have been used for various applications in orthodontics and prosthodontics. Earlier use of magnets was limited due to the unavailability of small size magnets, but after the introduction of rare earth magnets and their availability in smaller sizes, their use has increased considerably. They can be placed within prostheses without being obtrusive in the mouth. Their main use in orthodontics has been for tooth movement and in prosthodontics has been in maxillofacial prosthesis and in overdentures as retentive aids. This article reviews the types of magnets available and their application in maxillofacial prosthesis and overdentures, followed by other advantages and disadvantages.
  3,421 527 -
Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria
Maria B Cyriac, Vidya Pai, Manjula Shantaram, Maji Jose
July-December 2013, 1(2):126-130
Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera) are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.
  3,283 350 -
Effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge and practices of staff nurses on prevention of intravenous cannulae complications
Kanishka George, Bharti Muninarayanappa
July-December 2013, 1(2):115-119
Infectious rates and peripheral intravenous cannulae-associated complications are very common in patients with intravenous therapy. This study was aimed to assess the incidence of intravenous cannulae complications among patients after 72 hours in situ and to examine the impact of structured teaching program on knowledge and practices of staff nurses. In this study, researcher used descriptive and quasi-experimental approach; a non-probability convenient sampling technique was adopted to select 80 staff nurses, each 40 in experimental and 40 in control group. 67.79% of patients developed peripheral intravenous cannulae-related complications with grade 1 (33.05%) and grade 2 (34.74%) complications. Result revealed that it was highly significant at 0.05 level (t = 9.978; P < 0.05) for knowledge and not significant (t = 0.974; P > 0.05) for practice. The post-test knowledge found to be highly significant at 0.05 level (t = 3.909; P < 0.05), whereas practice score was not significant (t = 0.426; P > 0.05). It could be inferred that there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test practice score of staff nurses who attended the structured teaching program regarding prevention of intravenous cannulae complications.
  3,194 379 2
Awareness, practices, and prevalence of hypertension among rural Nigerian women
Samuel O. Azubuike, Rahab Kurmi
January-June 2014, 2(1):23-28
Background: High blood pressure is on the rise globally, affecting more women than men in many developing countries. It is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and hospitalization in sub-Saharan Africa. Many known risk factors to hypertension, though prevalent in Nigeria, are controllable. Prevention, however, is difficult where there is poor awareness, attitude, and practices. Objectives: The study aims at determining the level of knowledge of hypertension and its associated factors, attitudes, practices, and prevalence among rural Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional design was used to study 252 subjects in Sanga Local Government Area. Subject selection was by purposive and stratified sampling techniques. Data were collected using self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire after informed consents were obtained both verbally and in writing. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Level of significant was taken at 0.05. Results: Prevalence of hypertension was 24.2%. Average level of risk factor awareness was 65.4% with excessive salt intake (77.4%) being the most recognized. Asymptomatic nature of hypertension was recognized by 61.5% of the respondents, while 44.4% only knew the standard method for hypertension detection. While 17.5% strongly believed that hypertension can be managed effectively with drugs, it was only 9.1% that strongly disagreed that it could be caused by evil spirits. The average number of those with good preventive life style practices was 61.3%. Knowledge was associated with several factors and seems to affect practices (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fair but inadequate level of knowledge and attitudes affected by several factors, as well as moderately high prevalence was recorded.
  3,126 348 1
Asymptomatic reversible lesion on tongue: A case series in pediatric patients
Vela D Desai, Swati Phore, Pallavi Baghla
January-June 2015, 3(1):113-116
Tongue is a sensitive organ of the oral cavity that is responsible for many vital functions like taste, swallowing, speech, mastication, speaking and breathing. Geographic tongue is a frequently encountered oral condition with a controversial etiology. Since it is an asymptomatic condition known to resolve completely on its own, it is usually discovered during routine clinical examinations. Furthermore, it warrants treatment only when it becomes symptomatic. It can be present on any surface of the tongue but the commonest site is dorsal surface, where it characteristically presents with a migratory pattern that changes in location. This case report describes the uncommon occurrence of the tongue lesion diagnosed in children which is seldom reported in the pediatric literature.
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Antianxiety effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera in Swiss albino mice
Shankar K. Bhat, Anu Elizabeth Joy
January-June 2014, 2(1):5-7
Background: Anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental ailments exhibited by humans. It can cause considerable distress and debility. Anxiety is portrayed as a frame of mind concerned about future in association with preparation for possible, upcoming undesirable happenings. The present treatment for the disorder is having a lot of side-effects. An agent with good therapeutic effect and less side-effects is needed for the treatment of anxiety. Objectives: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of leaves of Moringa oleifera (200 mg/kg, i.p) was studied for its anxiolytic effect on Swiss albino mice by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Light Dark Arena (LDA) test. Results: The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera (200 mg/kg, i.p) demonstrated significant (P < 0.001) anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety. Conclusion: The data suggests that the ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves may have produced its anxiolytic effects via multiple mechanisms.
  3,105 328 -
Field cancerization: A review
M Aparna, Prashanth Shenai, Laxmikanth Chatra, KM Veena, Prasanna Kumar Rao, Rachana V Prabhu, KA Shahin
July-December 2013, 1(2):136-139
Concept of field cancerization was first introduced over six decades ago in the setting of oral cancer. Later, field cancerization involving histologic and molecular changes of neoplasms and adjacent tissue was explained. Field cancerization involves the lateral spread of pre-malignant or malignant disease and contributes to the recurrence of head and neck tumors. The overall hypothesis underlying this work is that endothelial cells actively participate in tumor cell invasion by secreting chemokines and creating a chemotactic gradient for tumor cells. The article tries to explain the conflicting aspects of field cancerization in the setting of oral cancer.
  2,603 712 3
Surgical outcomes following ocular re-alignment in various types of squints
Vidya Hegde, Anupama Bappal, Neelam Puthran
January-June 2013, 1(1):24-28
Background: Strabismus is one of the causes for visual impairment in childhood. It affects the development of binocular single vision. Therefore, early detection and timely management of strabismus is important. Aim: This study was aimed to describe types of strabismus patients presenting to a tertiary care center and the various management modalities including the surgical outcomes of ocular re-alignment Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart analysis of all patients with strabismus in any age group over a period of 5 years. Patients with cerebral palsy were excluded from this study. Surgical outcomes were graded as good if the eyes were orthophoric post-operatively, satisfactory if there was a residual squint of less than 10 degrees, and it was considered to be a poor outcome if the patients were left with more than 10 degrees of residual squint. Results: Chart analysis of 53 cases with strabismus comprising of 33 males and 20 females was done. The mean age of patients was 25 years. Thirty-two (60%) cases had exotropia, and 14 (26%) had esotropia. Three cases were of congenital superior oblique palsy, and one case was of lateral rectus palsy. Duane syndrome type I was seen in four cases. Of the 38 (72%) patients who were advised surgical correction, only 20 individuals underwent surgery. Reasons for refusal of surgery varied from fear factor to financial constraints and a disregard for cosmesis. Surgeries had been performed on both children (7) as well as adults (13). Seventy-five percent of the operated patients had exotropia. Eighteen patients underwent single-staged surgery. Bilateral recessions were the most common type of surgery noted in this study. Fifty percent of them remained orthophoric up to one year of post-operative follow up. Conclusion: Exotropia was the most common type of strabismus observed in this study. Successful ocular re-alignment was seen in majority of the patients following a single-stage procedure. Greater effort needs to be made to educate the public on need for early diagnosis and management.
  3,094 157 -
History of dentistry
Akhter Hussain, Faizan Ahmed Khan
January-June 2014, 2(1):106-110
  2,719 523 1
Ectopic premolar tooth in the maxillary sinus: A case report and review of literature
KS Gangadhara Somayaji, Aroor Rajeshwary, Mohammad Nalapad Abdulla, Sherwak Ramlan
January-June 2013, 1(1):48-51
Ectopic eruption of teeth in non-dental sites is a rare phenomenon and such cases have been reported to occur in the nasal cavity, chin, maxillary sinus, mandible, palate, and orbital cavity. Ectopic tooth eruptions in maxillary sinus are usually asymptomatic or may present with recurrent sinusitis. Majority are found incidentally during routine clinical or radiological investigation. We present a case of an ectopic upper second premolar tooth that caused chronic purulent sinusitis in relation to the right maxillary sinus. The tooth was attached to the posterior wall of the sinus without an associated dentigerous cyst. The case was innovatively managed by endoscopic approach through sublabial route.
  2,907 214 1
Nootropic potential of Bauhinia variegata: A systematic study on murine model
Nishikant Jatav, Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Nidhi Gupta, Chitrangda Ayachi, Ruchi Ramhariya, Divya Bansal, Nazneen Dubey
January-June 2014, 2(1):29-35
Objectives: Bauhinia variegata Linn (leguminosae) is one of the important medicinal herbs used traditionally to treat fever, as tonic, astringent, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, piles, edema. Recent findings on Bauhinia variegata Linn have demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, and hepatoprotective potential. The present work is focused to evaluate nootropic potential of Bauhinia variegata Linn in rats. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Bauhinia variegata were collected in the month of January from Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh). Leaves were subjected for isolation of crude flavonoids and characterized by total flavonoid content assay. Flavonoid-rich extract of Bauhinia variegata was studied for acute oral toxicity as per revised Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development guidelines No. 423. Nootropic activity was determined by elevated plus maze, rotating rod apparatus, baclofen-induced catatonia, diazepam-induced amnesia. Results: Flavonoid-rich fraction of Bauhinia variegata caused no alteration in locomotion in animals. In the current study, animals treated with flavonoid-rich fraction of Bauhinia variegata (400 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in transfer latency as compared to the control group, which indicates cognitive enhancement effect flavonoid-rich fraction of Bauhinia variegata. In rota rod studies, flavonoid-rich fraction of Bauhinia variegata increased fall of time as compared to diazepam. In baclofen-induced catatonia, administration of flavonoid-rich fraction of Bauhinia variegata demonstrated protective effect on rats. Over all, flavonoid-rich fraction of Bauhinia variegata was found to enhance the performance of murine models. Conclusion: Thus, it could be concluded that flavonoids from Bauhinia variegata possess nootropic potential. However, more systematic studies are required to determine its exact mechanism of action.
  2,641 199 -
Fungal nail disease (Onychomycosis); Challenges and solutions
M. Suchitra Shenoy, M. Manjunath Shenoy
January-June 2014, 2(1):48-53
Onychomycosis (fungal nail infection) is caused by three groups of fungal pathogens namely dermatophyte molds (DM), non-DM (NDM) and yeasts. It is primarily a cosmetic problem but may induce impact on quality of life. Clinically it is characterized by five morphologically distinctive types; distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), superficial white onychomycosis (SWO), proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO), and endothrix onychomycosis. It is difficult to detect the fungal agent responsible for a particular type of onychomycosis by clinical features alone. Mycological methods like direct demonstration of fungal agents by potassium hydroxide mount or nail plate histopathology with Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining are sensitive methods for the detection of pathogens. Fungal culture alone is commonly used as a standard for the detection of etiological agent. Molecular biological techniques are currently used only in research laboratories or epidemiological purposes. Therapy is generally not satisfactory. Both topical and systemic agents are used in the therapy. Topical Ciclopirix and Amorolfine are found to be effective but only in early and limited disease. Terbinafine and Itraconazole seems to be the best drugs for the systemic therapy. Clinical cure rates are generally lower than the mycological cure rates.
  2,471 333 -
Speech characteristics and swallowing functions post-segmental mandibulectomy
Priyanka V Naik, Thomas Zacharia, Jensy G Kuniyil, Shwetha
July-December 2013, 1(2):148-151
Objective: To describe the speech and swallowing characteristics following segmental mandibulectomy and coronoidectomy to release trismus. Materials and Methods: A detailed speech and swallowing function assessment was carried out using various formal and informal tests following the surgeries. Result: After the initial assessment, the patient had severe impairment with the movement of articulators, and distortion was observed for labio dentals, lingual sounds, and vowels. Speech intelligibility, diadokokinetic rate, maximum phonation duration were reduced, and also patient had severe voice problem and swallowing problems. Following the assessment post-coronoidectomy, patient had articulatory errors such as distortion, omission, and substitution for majority of sounds secondary to reduced articulatory movements. Swallowing and voice characteristics have improved slightly, and the voice parameters were near normal. Conclusion: Segmental mandibulectomy can have several effects on an individual's daily living as it affects speech, which becomes a major hindrance for communication. Also, due to the swallowing difficulties, there may be health issues. Hence, the affected individuals should be evaluated by a speech language pathologist to define the exact nature of changes in communication (including speech and voice), and swallowing that also helps to plan a comprehensive management strategy that includes speech therapy and surgical recommendation, which will have good prognosis in speech and swallow characteristics to give a good quality of life.
  2,525 224 -