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MEDICAL HISTORY
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 126-131

History of trepanation and the Indian connection


Department of Neurosurgery, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Girish Menon
Department of Neurosurgery, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal - 576 104, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/amhs.amhs_96_22

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Trepanation refers to scraping, cutting, or drilling of an opening (or openings) into the cranium and is believed to be one of the earliest surgeries performed on and by man. Fossil evidence of trephined skulls has been found in separate continents throughout ancient history and such discoveries continue to be made even from geographic areas or time periods from which the practice was not previously known. Equally interesting is the evolution of this practice from ancient times to the modern neurosurgical era. This review seeks to define a framework around the history of cranial trepanation and tries to understand the various different interpretations of the origin and etiology of the art of cranial trepanation, starting in the prehistoric era. The contribution of ancient Indian medicine toward the progress of this branch of surgical expertise is also discussed.


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