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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 50-54

Square-stepping exercises versus conventional exercises on cognition and risk of fall in postmenopausal women: A randomized control trial

Department of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Roopa R Desai
Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/amhs.amhs_197_21

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Background and Aim: Menopause is the cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian follicular activity. During menopause, there is a loss of estrogen which diminishes protective reflexes, increment bone resorption, thus speeding up bone loss. This has been seen as significant factor for decline in postural balance. Functional imaging shows that estrogen also regulates neural movement during the execution of intellectual assignments. Thus, women attaining menopause complain of issues with memory. The aim of this study was to compare square-stepping exercises (SSEs) and conventional physiotherapy training on cognition and risk of fall. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five postmenopausal women, attained >5 years of menopause up to 65 years of age were included in the study and were randomly allocated into SSEs Group A (n = 18) and conventional physiotherapy training Group B (n = 17). Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and balance was assessed by the Berg's Balance Scale at pre, post-2 weeks, and post-4 weeks of intervention. Results: Paired t-test and unpaired t-test were used for within and between-group analysis for Berg's Balance Scale. Wilcoxon test was used for within-group analysis and Mann–Whitney test was used for between-group analysis for Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The level of significance was determined by P < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Statistically significant improvements were seen in both groups (P < 0.05), whereas between-group analysis, there was no significant difference with P > 0.05. Conclusion: Both types of exercise protocol were equally effective in improving cognition and preventing the risk of fall in postmenopausal women.

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